看国外 | 非洲猪瘟爆发?做完这18步才能复产(下)

看国外 2019-08-19 09:36:12

This is part 2 of a checklist for pig producers and veterinarians - steps 10 - 18.

非洲猪瘟对全球养猪业造成了巨大影响,并且还在持续。上文提到,猪场可采取18个步骤让生产重回正轨,本文为余下9个步骤。

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Treating the manure lagoon: it is needed to cover all farm territory with powder disinfectant 25% dry bleach. Photo: Gustavo Lopez

处理粪便泻湖:用25%干漂白剂粉末消毒剂覆盖猪场所述范围。图:Gustavo Lopez

10 Intensive cleaning of tools – phase I

10加强工具清洗-第一步

As ASFv is very resistant, it is vital to clean and disinfect properly all materials that may have been in contact with the virus. Applying one methodology is advised, so to…

由于ASFv具有很强的耐药性,因此对所有可能接触过该病毒的材料进行适当的清洁和消毒至关重要。建议采用方法,以便……

  • Perform a mechanical removal of all organic material (feed, faeces, dirt) using brushes and shovels;

  • Hand wash water-sensitive equipment (e.g. temperature controllers), using a cloth soaked in disinfectant before covering it with plastic;

  • Dispose and burn equipment that cannot be properly disinfected;

  • Spray water on all surfaces with a hose or a sprinkler.

  • Apply alkaline detergent to all surfaces;

  • Rinse with water and allow time for drying;

  • Apply disinfectant to all surfaces following manufacturer’s instructions and allow a minimum of six hours of contact;

  • Increase room temperature when possible.

  • 使用刷子或铲子机械去处有机物(饲料、粪污、灰尘等);

  • 手洗可水洗的设备,如温度计,用塑料膜覆盖之前,先用泡过消毒水的抹布擦拭;

  • 丢弃或烧掉无法适当消毒的设备;

  • 用软管或喷头在物体表明喷上水;

  • 用碱性洗涤剂清洗物件表面;

  • 用水擦拭,并留出足够时间进行干燥;

  • 根据生产商的指示对所有物体进行消毒,并留出至少6小时进行作用;

  • 尽量提高室温。

11 Intensive cleaning of tools – phase II

11 加强工具清洗-第二步

Following the same methodology, the next steps include…

按照同样的方法,后续步骤包括……

  • Dismantle the farm equipment (slats, feeders, feed lines);

  • Perform a mechanical removal of all organic material with the help of brushes and shovels;

  • Spray water and apply alkaline detergent to all surfaces;

  • Rinse with water and allow time for drying;

  • Apply disinfectant to all surfaces following manufacturer’s instructions and allow a minimum of six hours of contact;

  • Increase room temperature when possible;

  • Disinfect the equipment used for disinfection with a cloth soaked in disinfectant or using disinfectant vapour;

  • Dispose of and burn all clothing used during the disinfection.

  • 拆除农场设备(板条、喂料机、喂料线);

  • 用刷子和铲子机械地清除所有有机物质;

  • 喷上水,并在所有表面涂上碱性洗涤剂;

  • 用水冲洗,并留出时间晾干;

  • 按照制造商的指示在所有表面涂抹消毒剂,并留出至少6小时的接触时间;

  • 尽可能提高室温;

  • 用浸有消毒剂的布或消毒剂蒸气对消毒设备进行消毒;

  • 消毒过程中使用的所有衣物应进行处理或焚烧。

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Spraying against ticks outside the farm buildings. Photo: Gustavo Lopez

12 Intensive cleaning of tools – phase III

12 加强工具清洗-第三步

Following the same methodology, the last steps include…

  • Apply disinfectant to all surfaces by low pressure sprinkling or using powder disinfectant;

  • Allow for a minimum of six hours of contact;

  • Increase room temperature when possible;

  • Seal the farm area and forbid any access to it.

按照相同的方法,最后的步骤包括……

  • 采用低压喷洒或粉末消毒剂喷洒于所有表面;

  • 接触至少6小时;

  • 尽可能提高室温;

  • 封锁农场,禁止任何人进入其中。

13 ASF outside the pig barns

13 猪舍外的非瘟病毒

Once all the internal facilities are cleaned up, there may still be environmental contamination outside the buildings from a variety of sources. That is a potential source of virus and a high risk for the virus re-entering the farm. It is essential to…

  • Cover all farm territory with powder disinfectant 25% dry bleach at a rate of 2kg/m2;

  • Mix lagoon manure with 25% dry bleach at the rate of 1.5kg per 10 dm3;

  • Remove the upper layer of the covered pits – this must be buried in a new pit;

  • Dispose of any feed left inside feed bins – this must be buried in the pits;

  • Disinfect feed bins using sprayers;

  • Fence off the entire pit area to avoid access by people or animals;

  • Burn clothes worn during this phase;

  • Seal the entire farm and forbid access until quarantine is lifted.

一旦所有的内部设施都被清理干净,猪舍外可能仍然会有各种来源的环境污染。这是一个潜在的病毒来源,也是病毒重新进入农场的高风险因素。很重要的是……

  • 以2公斤/平方米的比例,用25%的干粉漂白剂覆盖猪场所有地方;

  • 将泻湖粪便与25%干漂白剂按每米3 1.5kg的比例混合;

  • 移除覆盖坑的上层-这必须埋在一个新的坑中;

  • 处理饲料箱内剩余的饲料-必须将其埋于坑内;

  • 使用喷雾器消毒饲料箱;

  • 将整个坑区围起来,避免人或动物进入;

  • 烧掉这一阶段穿的衣服;

  • 封锁整个农场,在隔离解除之前禁止进入。

14 Bioassays

14 生物鉴定

Restarting the business should be one of the priorities for every company hit by ASFv. That is not an easy task, as ASF is extremely resistant to the environment. It will take time, massive efforts, resources and repetition, because under recontamination is frequent. What is under recontamination?

对于每一家受到非瘟病毒冲击的公司来说,复产应该是优先考虑的事情之一。这不是一项容易的任务,因为非瘟对环境具有极强的抵抗力。这需要时间、大量努力、资源和重复,因为再污染是经常发生的。那么,什么是再污染?

As African Swine Fever is a notifiable disease for the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), the repopulation time may be controlled by local authorities, depending on the country. Once authorities allow repopulation, it is recommended that a bioassay (sentinel introduction) is started. A bioassay is an analytical method to determine concentration or potency of a substance by its effect on living cells or tissues. Bioassays are used to estimate the potency of agents by observing their effects on living animals (in vivo) or tissues (in vitro). In short – it will confirm whether a farm is clean enough for repopulation.

由于非洲猪瘟是世界动物卫生组织(OIE)规定的一种应上报的疾病,因此,根据国家的不同,复产的时间可能由地方当局控制。一旦当局允许复产,建议开始生物测定(前哨引入)。生物测定是一种分析方法,通过对活细胞或组织的影响来确定物质的浓度或效力。生物测定法是通过观察药物对活体动物(体内)或组织(体外)的影响来估计药物的效力。简而言之——它将确认一个农场是否足够干净,是否可以进行复产。

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After the burning and burial of the pigs, the pit should be covered with dirt and a layer of dry bleach applied to the surface. Photo: Gustavo Lopez

焚烧和埋葬猪只之后,坑内应该覆盖上泥土,并在表面涂上一层干燥的漂白剂。图:Gustavo Lopez

15 Sentinel introduction procedures

15 引入前哨猪的步骤

Introducing sentinels is best, following these steps. It is essential to…

  • Select a reliable source of animals;

  • Confirm through lab testing whether this source is free from major diseases;

  • Arrange transportation with a clean and disinfected truck;

  • Recruit staff willing to live on the farm for 60 days;

  • Deliver the required feed for the entire 60-day period;

  • Confirm with laboratory testing that feed and water is negative to ASFv;

  • Deliver the animals (5-10% of farm capacity);

  • Wash and disinfect the truck used, and apply downtime, before going to other sites.

按照以下步骤,最好引入前哨猪。很重要的是……

  • 选择来源可靠的生猪;

  • 通过实验室检测确认来源是否无重大疾病;

  • 使用清洁、消毒的卡车安排运输;

  • 招募愿意在农场生活60天的员工;

  • 提供整60天内所需的饲料;

  • 与实验室确认饲料和水呈非瘟病毒阴性;

  • 运送动物(占农场生产能力的5-10%);

  • 在去其他地点之前,清洗和消毒所使用的卡车,并停机。

16 Sentinels – what to do?

16 前哨猪-怎么做?

In nurseries and finisher farms, in total two to three pigs should enter per pen. Some pigs should be allowed to walk freely through hallways and corridors. Similarly, in sow farms, it is not advisable to lock the animals in crates. They also should be allowed to have access to all farm areas. If necessary, physical barriers can be used to prevent them from staying in one area.

在保育舍和育肥猪舍,每个猪圈2到3头猪。让一些猪可以自由穿过走廊。同样,在母猪场,不建议把母猪锁在板条箱里,应该让它们可以进入猪场所有区域。如果有必要,可以使用物理屏障来阻止它们停留在一个区域。

17 Monitoring the sentinels

17 监控前哨猪

After the introduction of the animals onto the farms, it is important to…

  • Monitor the sentinel pigs for 60 days;

  • Perform a weekly PCR testing of live animals using whole blood of a statistical significant amount;

  • Have all dead animals inspected by a vet. Tissues should be submitted for laboratory testing (e.g. kidney, tonsils, lymph nodes, lungs and spleen);

  • Collect blood samples from all the pigs at the end of the 60-day period. ELISA testing should be carried out for antibodies and PCR testing for antigen detection.

把生猪引入圈舍后,重要的是……

  • 监察前哨猪60天;

  • 每周用统计上有显著数量的全血对活体进行PCR检测;

  • 让兽医检查所有死去的动物。把组织提交至实验室检测(如肾、扁桃体、淋巴结、肺、脾);

  • 在60天周期结束时,收集所有猪的血液样本。抗体采用ELISA检测,抗原检测采用PCR检测。

18 Finally! ASFv is gone

18 非瘟病毒终于根除了!

Once all procedures have been completed, and all quarantine periods are over, and once all tests have returned negative for ASFv at any timepoints – only then is the farm ready for the ultimate goal: total repopulation.

当所有程序完成,所有检疫期结束,所有检测结果在任何时间点都呈阴性,只有到那时,猪场才算做好准备实现最终目标:全面复产。


原文链接:https://www.pigprogress.net/Health/Articles/2019/8/ASF-on-farm-Back-on-track-in-18-steps---part-2-461974E/

来源:Pig Progress

作者:Rafa Pedrazuela

(文/爱猪网记者刘坤颖编译,爱猪网原创,转载请注明出处)


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