看国外 | 非洲猪瘟发生了?18步回到正轨(上)

看国外 2019-08-16 09:59:28

African Swine Fever (ASF) arrived in China, the world’s largest pig market and has been spreading rapidly across countries, provinces, towns and counties of Asia. Now what to do in practice when the virus pops up? This is part one of a checklist for pig producers and veterinarians the first 9 of the 18 steps.

自非洲猪瘟(ASF)传入中国,这个世界上最大的生猪市场,还在亚洲各国、各省、镇、县迅速蔓延。那么,当病毒出现时,我们该怎么做呢?本文是为养殖户和兽医列出的18个步骤中的前9个步骤。

Never before in history, has African Swine Fever virus (ASFv) had the opportunity it is having right now. Up until recently, the virus was spreading slowly through different pig populations. What happened in 2018, however, was completely new. The virus moved thousands of kilometres and infected thousands of animals in a very short period of time. In addition, environmental conditions changed as the presence of the virus in the environment is likely to be much higher. Still, the mechanism to control the infection, to avoid it spreading and to manage the farm after an outbreak remains the same. It is just a matter of applying all the measures more vigorously.

历史上,非洲猪瘟病毒(ASFv)从未像现在这样。直到最近,病毒还在不同的猪群中缓慢传播。然而,2018年发生的事情却是全新的。病毒传播了数千公里,在很短的时间内感染了数千只动物。此外,由于病毒存在于环境中,环境条件发生了很大变化。尽管如此,控制感染、避免感染蔓延以及在疫情爆发后管理农场的机制仍然是一样的。问题只在于更积极地应用所有措施。

图片1.png 

After the burning and burial of the pigs, the pit should be covered with dirt and a layer of dry bleach applied to the surface. Photo: Gustavo Lopez

焚烧和埋葬猪只之后,坑内应该覆盖上泥土,并在表面涂上一层干燥的漂白剂。图:Gustavo Lopez

This article contains a summary of 18 steps that can be followed, either to control the spread of the disease on-farm once it is infected or to prevent the virus entering onto other farm sites. In addition, the article provides information about the best way to repopulate a farm.

本文它包含了18个步骤的摘要,遵循这些步骤,可以控制疾病的传播,或者防止病毒进入其他农场。此外,本文还提供了猪场复产的最佳方法。

This paper is based on the experience of controlling ASF in large pig production systems and also the knowledge acquired after travelling to China on various occasions trying to answer questions from colleagues and producers. It’s therefore good to keep in mind that some recommendations might vary under different circumstances or scenarios.

本文以大型养猪场ASF控制的经验为基础,结合多次到中国旅游的经验,尝试回答同事和养殖户的问题。因此,一些建议在不同的环境或场景下可能会有所不同。

In short, the article revolves around two questions: What to do when facing an ASF outbreak? And what is the best protocol to follow starting a proper repopulation?

简而言之,这篇文章围绕着两个问题展开:非瘟爆发时该怎么办?复产最好的方案是什么?

1 Speed is key

1 速度是关键

In the case of ASF, acting fast is crucial, so detection, quick actions and removal of the source of infection are imperative to avoid further viral spread within the production system. It is recommended that pig movements involving the affected site are traced back for 15 days. Moreover, farms that had any epidemiological link (pigs and/or trucks) with the affected site should be placed under a strict quarantine and testing must be done to rule out ASF infection.

面对非洲猪瘟,快速行动是至关重要的,因此检测、快速行动和清除感染源是必要的,以避免病毒在生产系统中进一步传播。建议追踪受影响地区的猪只活动15天。此外,与受感染地点有任何流行病学联系的农场(猪和/或卡车)应进行严格隔离,还必须进行检测以排除非瘟感染。

2 Trucks need disinfecting

2 卡车需消毒

Live-haul trucks that have been involved in the latest pig movements from the affected site should be sent for a complete and thorough washing and disinfection immediately and allow time for disinfectant contact and drying.

新近从受影响地点运来的活拖货车应立即进行彻底的清洗和消毒,并留出足够时间消毒和烘干。

3 Creating a perimeter

3 设置边缘

In order to contain the spread of the virus in a systematic way, 3 areas or perimeters around the affected site should be defined. Clear definitions between all stakeholders about distances and perimeters is essential.

1. The first area, containing the affected site(s), is called the ‘outbreak zone’, having a 1km radius;

2. The second area, called the ‘control zone’, has a 3-5 km radius around the affected site;

3. The third area is called ‘surveillance zone’. This has a radius of 10km or more, depending on geographical conditions and swine density.

为了系统地控制病毒的传播,应确定受影响区域周围的3个区域或边缘。所有涉众之间关于距离和边缘的明确定义是至关重要的。

1. 第一个区域包括受影响的地点,称为“爆发区”,半径为1公里;

2. 第二个区域称为“控制区”,其半径为3-5公里;

3. 第三个区域叫做“监视区”。这片区域的半径为10公里或更大,取决于地理条件和猪群密度。

图片2.png 

Pig feeding equipment is being disinfected. Photo: Gustavo Lopez

消毒饲喂设备。图:Gustavo Lopez

4 Forbidden in the control zone to…

4 控制区禁止……

· Allow entrance to any external people except those required for eliminating and disinfecting, state vets and residents;

· Sell or move pigs to outside the zone;

· Slaughter any pigs, sell carcasses and by-products;

· Sell feed for swine consumption;

· Conduct any incoming and outgoing transports, except those connected to ASF elimination and/or life support of residents.

•任何外部人员进入,但进行扑杀和消毒的人员、州兽医和居民除外;

•出售生猪或转移到区外;

•屠宰生猪,出售其尸体和副产品;

•出售猪饲料;

•任何进出运输,与消除非瘟和/或维持生命物料的运输除外。

5 Imperative in the control zone to…

5 控制区必须……

· Install check-points and disinfection barriers at the entrances and exits of the affected site and the control zone;

· Disinfect any vehicle exiting the control zone by covering all the external surfaces of the vehicle and ensure a minimum of three hours of exposure (see also point 9);

· Change clothing and shoes at the checkpoint before entering the control zone. No street clothing and shoes should be allowed into the control zone;

· Eliminate any stray animals.

•在受影响场地和控制区的出入口设置检查点和消毒屏障;

•对任何驶出控制区域的车辆进行消毒,方法是覆盖车辆的所有外部表面,并确保至少有3小时的暴露时间(见第9点);

•进入控制区前,在检查点更换衣服和鞋子。管制区内禁止穿街服、鞋;

•杜绝任何流浪动物。

6 Imperative on the affected site to…

6 爆发点必须……

· Eliminate all pigs and pig products, without blood being spilled, as ASFv is found in high quantities in blood. A method can be an intramuscular injectable product composed of succinic acid bis-dimethyl sulfate;

· Dispose of all corpses (dead and killed pigs), products and animal waste in a 4m deep pit;

· Only remove pigs from the pens or crates once the pit is ready for burning and burial. It is important to minimise the chances of vultures feeding on carcasses;

· Start with the most affected area of the farm to limit the amount of pigs getting infected and minimise the viral load in the environment;

· Burn all corpses and slaughter products, with help of e.g. wooden materials, straw or rubber materials.

· Cover the pit, after burning, with dirt and a layer of disinfectant applied to the surface.

· Keep staff involved in euthanasia, washing and disinfection, on-site until their task is finished;

· Implement a strict showering in/out protocol plus change of clothes in case keeping staff on-site is not feasible;

· Conduct fumigation for rodent and tick control to prevent mechanical and/or biological spread of the virus.

•清除所有猪和猪产品,避免血液外溢,因为非瘟病毒在血液中含量很高。一种方法可以是由丁二酸双二甲基硫酸盐组成的肌内注射产品;

•将所有尸体(病死或扑杀而死的猪)、产品和粪便填入4米深的坑中处理;

•只有当坑准备好焚烧和埋葬时,才可以将猪从猪圈或板条箱中取出。重要的是尽量减少秃鹰啄食尸体的机会;

•从受感染最严重的区域开始,限制感染猪的数量,并将环境中的病毒含量降至最低;

•焚烧所有尸体和屠宰产品,使用木质材料、稻草或橡胶材料;

•燃烧后,用泥土和一层消毒剂覆盖坑表面;

•让员工参与安乐死、清洗和消毒,直至任务完成;

•假如员工无法留在现场,实施严格的进出淋浴程序,并更换衣服;

•对啮齿动物和蜱虫进行熏蒸控制,以防止病毒的机械和/或生物传播。

图片3.png 

Pig farm equipment gathered for treatment. Photo: Gustavo Lopez

把猪场设备整理在一起,以备处理。图:Gustavo Lopez

7 Proper disinfection

7 适当消毒

ASFv is a complex ‘DNA enveloped’ virus and is resistant to the environment. It is possible to create a bad environment to reduce its survival capacity. For a disinfectant to be fully effective, it is critical to…

· Follow the manufacturer’s instructions;

· Remove all organic material with alkaline detergent;

· Allow time for drying before applying disinfectant;

· Ensure proper time of exposure;

· Increase water and room temperature when possible.

非瘟病毒是一种复杂的“DNA包膜”病毒,对环境具有抗药性。创造一个恶劣的环境来降低它的生存能力是可行的。为了使消毒剂完全有效,关键是……

•遵循制造商的指示;

•用碱性洗涤剂去除所有有机物;

•在使用消毒剂前,留出干燥时间;

•确保适当的曝光时间;

•尽可能升高水温和室温。

8 Disinfectants proven to inactivate ASFv

8 经证明可灭活非瘟病毒的消毒剂

· Sodium hydroxide;

· Sodium hypochlorite;

· Calcium hypochlorite;

· Glutaraldehyde;

· Citric acid;

· Iodine monochloride;

· Formaldehyde;

· Quaternary ammonium compounds;

· Oxidisers like potassium peroxymonosulfate (Virkon S).

•氢氧化钠;

•次氯酸钠;

•次氯酸钙;

•戊二醛;

•柠檬酸;

•一氯化碘;

•甲醛;

•季铵盐化合物;

•过氧单硫酸钾(Virkon S)等氧化剂。

9 Facility disinfection

9 设施消毒

All materials used for the pig elimination have to be disinfected, as well as the farm facilities. Those materials that cannot properly be disinfected should be burnt with the pig carcasses as they are a potential danger. Farms with multiple rooms should start disinfecting from the most affected part and work their way outwards.

扑杀病猪用的所有材料和设施都必须消毒。那些不能消毒的材料应与猪尸体一起焚烧,因为它们是潜在的危险。拥有多个圈舍的猪场应该从感染最严重的地方开始消毒,并向外推进。

下一篇将接着讲述余下9个步骤。

原文链接:

https://www.pigprogress.net/Health/Articles/2019/8/ASF-on-farm-Back-on-track-in-18-steps---Part-1-461484E/

文章来源:Pig Progress

(文/爱猪网记者刘坤颖编译,爱猪网原创,转载请注明出处)


    推荐阅读