“万牧特约”看国外 | 使用80°C热水进行清洁,猪场便可省去消毒剂?

设备资讯 2019-03-05 10:00:00

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Cleaning is often essential on farms, when it’s all change in the cattle shed, for example, at the end of milking or when dirty machines need cleaning. Using pressure washers is a standard procedure, but new findings have come to light on whether hot water or cleaning agents and disinfectants should be used.

在农场里,当一切发生变化时,比如挤奶结束之后,或者机器脏了的时候,清洗通常是必不可少的。使用高压清洗机是一个标准程序,但是新的发现已经揭示了是否应该使用热水或清洁剂和消毒剂。

ECo-friendly and resource-saving use of cleaning agents and disinfectants plays an increasingly important role in cleaning processes, especially in food production. Maintaining healthy livestock is of critical significance in the manufacture of animal products. Production in conditions of global competition calls for continuous further development and optimisation of cleanliness and of pathogen eradication. The main focus is on minimising the resulting residues in the environment, and, above all, in the products themselves.

在清洁过程中,特别是在食品生产中,如何环保、节约地使用清洁剂和消毒剂发挥着越来越重要的作用。牲畜健康对动物产品生产具有重要意义。全球竞争环境下,生产需要实现持续发展,并优化清洁度和病原体的消除。主要关注点在于最小化环境中,尤其是产品中的残留物。

The Thuringian State Office for Agriculture (TLL) carried out cleaning tests to compare the use of hot and cold water. The research goal was to test the cleaning effect and above all the pathogen eradication effect achieved by pressure washers with improved technical features that eject water at temperatures of 80°C and more, at different water flow rates, working pressures and exposure times. All tests were conducted without the addition of cleaning agents and disinfectants. 

图林根州农业办公室(TLL)进行了清洁测试,以比较热水和冷水的使用情况。研究目的是测试在不同的水流速度、压力和暴露时间下,通过改进技术的高压清洗机喷射80°C及以上温度的水所达到的清洁效果,尤其是消灭病原体的效果。所有试验均在不添加清洁剂和消毒剂的情况下进行。

They were performed as practical tests at the Thuringian Teaching, Testing and Research Farm in Buttelstedt and at Rhönland e.G. in Dermbach. The areas cleaned were evaluated in a laboratory. Swabs were tested after breeding for staphylococci, streptococci, gram-positive farm bacteria, spore formers and coli bacteria. In addition, the laboratory of the Animal Diseases Fund in Jena facilitated photographic representation of the incubated Petri dishes, as shown in the tables. 

这些试验在Buttelstedt和Rhönland的图林根教学、测试及研究农场进行了实际测试。清洁后的区域在实验室中进行评估。繁殖葡萄球菌、链球菌、革兰氏阳性农场细菌、孢子形成物和大肠杆菌后取拭子进行测试。此外,耶拿动物疾病基金实验室协助进行了培养皿的照片成像,如表中所示。

Detailed tests were undertaken of the effect of using hot-water machines for cleaning: 

热水机的清洗效果也进行了详细的测试:

– Animal transport vehicles, 

–动物运输车辆、

– Heavily soiled manure spreaders, 

–严重污染的施肥机、

– Calf huts and 

–牛犊小屋和

– The stalls of a pig-breeding plant.

–养猪场的栏位。

Hot-water cleaning machines were used for all tests, and a pair-wise comparison was made between cold-water and hot-water cleaning. The technical parameters water flow rate, exposure time, working pressure, nozzles used and high-pressure lance were always the same. Temperatures were set on the machine, read off and checked with measuring devices. 

所有测试均使用热水清洗机,并在冷水和热水清洗之间进行成对比较。水流量、暴露时间、工作压力、使用的喷嘴和高压喷枪等技术参数始终相同。在机器上设置、读取并使用测量设备检查温度。

The hotter the water, the better the outcome

◆ 温度越高,效果越好

An animal transport vehicle and a manure spreader were cleaned on the washing station with cold and, for comparison purposes, with hot water at 60°C. It should be noted that the main aim of cleaning the manure spreader was dirt removal. Bacteria eradication was not so important. 

动物运输车和施肥机在清洗站用冷水清洗,出于比较目的,也用60℃的热水进行清洗。需要注意的是,清洗施肥机的主要目的是清除污垢,消灭细菌在这里并不是那么重要。

In the case of animal transport vehicles, both in internal transport and, most importantly, when transporting animals for slaughter or transferring them to other establishments, minimisation of pathogens plays a major role. The German Animal Transport Ordinance regulates c leaning and pathogen minimisation.

就动物运输车辆而言,无论是内部运输还是把动物运至屠宰场,或将其转移到其他场所,最重要的是最大限度地减少病原体。“德国动物运输条例”规定了清洁和病原体最小值。

The analysis of cleaning results shown in Table 1 shows how the cleaning and pathogen reduction goals were achieved. This is particularly clear in the image documentation. In the case of the heavily soiled manure spreader, the visual impression of cold-water cleaning compared with hot-water cleaning were especially convincing (see table below). If pathogen reduction is not a priority, cleaning with warm water at approximately 60°C is adequate. For example, one could use warm water directly from a biogas plant. 

表1中所示的清洁结果分析显示了如何实现清洁和减少病原体的目标。这在图像中尤为明显。对于污染严重的施肥机,与热水清洗和冷水清洗的对比视觉效果特别令人信服(见下表)。如果不优先考虑减少病原体,用约60°C的温水清洗就足够了。例如,可以直接从沼气厂使用温水。

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The cleaning of calf huts places more stringent demands as regards the pathogen status of the huts after cleaning. When the next calf is placed in the hut it should not be confronted with bacteria from the previous inhabitant. Prolonged periods of vacancy make additional interim disinfection necessary. 

For the purpose of testing, huts were cleaned with cold water, warm water at 60°C, hot water at 80°C and in each case swabs were taken after drying. There were clear differences in effectiveness. Cleaning with water at 60°C did not eradicate or minimise some types of pathogen. Cleaning with hot water at 80°C and with steam produced a very good effect. The huts and the floor were almost bacteria-free. After cleaning one must always wait until the cleaned surface has dried. 

牛犊棚屋的清洁对棚屋清洁后的病原菌状况提出了更严格的要求。牛犊进入棚屋时,不应与先前牛犊留下的细菌接触。空置时间延长,则需要额外的临时消毒。出于试验目的,用冷水、60°C温水、80°C热水清洗棚屋,在每种情况下,待干燥后取拭子。清洁效果有明显差异。用60℃温水清洗并不能根除或减少某些类型的病原体。80°C热水和蒸汽配合使用的清洗效果非常好。棚内和地板几乎没有细菌残留。清洁后,必须一直等到清洁过的表面干燥为止。

Final cleaning with steam always requires pre-cleaning both hut and floor with a high-pressure water jet because excrement, urine and straw residues must be removed after mucking out. Thus, if the object cleaned is required to be almost bacteria-free, steam cleaning always involves two operations, whereas pressure washing with hot water at 80°C (in the test at a water flow rate of 1,300 litres per hour and 200 bars pressure) requires only one operation. That saves a considera ble amount of time, also because less time is spent changing equip ment.

利用蒸汽进行最后的清洁需要用高压水喷射器对小屋和地板进行预清洁,因为粪便、尿液和秸秆残留物必须在清理后清除。因此,如果要求清洗的物体几乎不含细菌,蒸汽清洗通常需要进行两次操作,而用80°C热水进行高压清洗(在水流量为1,300升/小时和200巴的压力下进行测试)只需要一次操作。这节省了大量的时间,也因为更换设备花费的时间更少。

1.用冷水和热水清洗车辆的比较:

拭子样品上的菌落中的细菌。

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菌落:超过1,000 =原始细菌数量或无效减少,100至1,000 =细菌少量减少,30至100 =成功清洁和减少细菌,0至30 =细菌急剧减少,0 =无菌

2.棚屋清洁效率比较:

不同温度下清洁时拭子样本上菌落中的细菌。

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菌落:超过1,000 =原始细菌数量或无效减少,100至1,000 =细菌少量减少,30至100 =成功清洁和减少细菌,0至30 =细菌急剧减少,0 =无菌 

Economic assessment

◆ 经济评估

Economic evaluation of the various high-pressure cleaning systems must be based on the individual enterprise. Apart from power to drive the high-pressure pump, cold-water machines require no further energy input. 

各种高压清洗系统的经济评价必须根据每个企业自身情况进行。除了驱动高压泵的动力外,冷水机不需要更多的能量输入。

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As the experiments showed, even water at 60°C reduces pathogens. If pressure washers are designed for inflow temperatures of up to 60°C or, better still, higher, heated water, for example from the thermal power station of a biogas plant, can be used. It is important to pay attention to the structural design of the high-pressure gun. It should be designed so that no hot water is passed through the handle. That type of design places too much thermal strain on the operator’s  hand and prevents extended operation. 

实验表明,即使在60°C的温度下,水也能减少病原体。如果压力清洗器设计的进水温度高达60°C,或者更高的温度,可以使用沼气厂热电站的加热水。高压水枪的结构设计应引起重视。其设计应确保热水不会通过把手。不然会给操作者的手带来太多的热应力,缩短了操作时间。

Hot-water pressure washers that can heat the intake water automatically to the steam setting require additional energy for this process, as much as 6 to 10 litres of diesel or heating oil per hour. In this case, water is taken from the existing cold-water pipe system. This higher energy consumption should be offset against the savings in working time, which can be reduced by half when cleaning calf huts, for example. Considerable further savings can be achieved because there is no longer any need for disinfecting measures in low-pathogen areas where specified and monitored cleaning management is practiced. 

使用可以自动将进水加热到蒸汽设定值的热水压力清洗机,需要额外的能量,高达每小时6到10升柴油或加热油。在这种情况下,水取自现有的冷水管道系统。这种更高的能耗应该与节省的工作时间相抵消,例如,在清洁牛犊棚屋时,工作时间可以减少一半。由于不再需要在低病原体区域采取任何消毒措施,因此可以进一步节省大量费用,因为在低病原体区域实施了指定和监控的清洁管理。

Heated pressure washers justify higher procurement costs because of their quality and performance. One should only buy machines that maintain the set temperature continuously, although a maximum deviation of 3% is tolerable. It should be made clear to manufacturers that these settings are required. In modern hot-water pressure washers, an eco setting is extremely useful. On this setting the instantaneous water heater always heats the water to 60°C regardless whether a different temperature or other parameters are set. The machine then achieves a perfect balance between cleaning performance and energy consumed. 

加热压力清洗机因其质量和性能而需要更高的采购成本。我们只购买那些可以持续保持设定温度的机器,3%的最大偏差值是可以容忍的。制造商应该明白这些设置是必需的。在现代热水压力清洗机中,生态设置非常有用。在该设置中,无论设置了不同的温度或其他参数,瞬时热水器始终将水加热到60°C。从而使机器在清洁性能和能耗之间达到完美的平衡。

A worthwhile aim for manufacturers of heated pressure washers should be to develop model versions that enable hot water from, say, milk refrigeration, biogas plant or biomass heating systems to be connected directly to the device and used. With incoming water at different temperatures, the device needs only to offset the difference in temperature between the incoming water and the setting, in this case 80°C. 

加热高压清洗机制造商的一个有价值的目标应该是开发模型版本,使牛奶制冷、沼气厂或生物质加热系统的热水能够直接连接到设备并加以使用。 对于不同温度的进水,该设备只需要补偿进水和设置之间的温差,在这种情况下使其达到80°C。

Recommendations for use

◆ 使用建议

Thorough and time-efficient cleaning and disinfection in all areas of agricultural production can only be achieved by using hot-water pressure washers. Cold-water models can achieve a certain basic degree of cleaning by means of high pressure and a large amount of water. 

As soon as higher levels of fat removal or, indeed, bacteria reduction are required, they are largely ineffective, however. Using chemical cleaning agents to assist in the cleaning process with cold water is inappropriate. 

只有使用热水压力清洗机,才能在农业生产的所有领域实现彻底、高效的清洁和消毒。冷水模型可以通过高压和大量的水实现一定程度的清洁。然而,一旦需要去除更高水平的脂肪,或者需要减少细菌,它们基本上是无效的。而使用化学清洗剂协助冷水清洗过程是不适当的。

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The test series showed that hot-water pressure washers can achieve a drastic reduction in bacteria levels even without using cleaning agents and disinfectant solutions. In many cases, disinfectant usage can be reduced or the disinfection cycle protracted. This saving and the reduction in working time required usually more than offset the cost of using hot water. Buildings and equipment are also less subjected to chemical contamination. The risk of residues in agricultural products and the environment is minimised. 

Compliance with statutory requirements such as for disinfection of animal transporters is of course essential, and operatives must work precisely as a precondition for success in cleaning and bacteria reduction. 

试验系列表明,即使不使用清洁剂和消毒剂溶液,热水压力清洗机也能大幅降低细菌含量。在许多情况下,可以减少消毒剂的使用或延长消毒周期。所需工作时间的节约和减少通常可以抵销使用热水的成本。建筑物和设备也较少受到化学污染。农产品和环境残留的风险降至最低。当然,遵守诸如动物运输工具消毒等法定要求是必不可少的,而作为成功清洁和减少细菌的前提条件,操作人员必须准确作业。

Given the low impact pressure and energy density of steam, cleaning with the full amount of water, the highest possible pressure and at 80°C, is usually to be preferred. The energy density per unit of surface area, in other words the impact pressure and temperature, ensure swift and thorough cleaning and secure bacteria reduction.

There is thus a greater process reliability combined with a saving of up to two work operations. A minimum hot-water pressure washer requirement is a water throughput of 1,000 l/h and a jet pressure of 180 bar. Less will not ensure reliable results. 

考虑到蒸汽的冲击压力和能量密度较低,通常优选是用足量的水、最高可能压力和80°C水温进行清洁。单位表面积的能量密度,也就是冲击压力和温度,是快速彻底清洗和并减少细菌的保证。因此,工艺可靠性更高,同时最多可减少两个工作操作。热水压力清洗机的最低要求是1000 l/h的水流量和180 bar的喷射压力。低于此则不能保证可靠的结果。

了解相关产品信息,请咨询关女士:18819173905 (微信同号) 

原文作者/Dr. Günter Beyersdorfer(郭琳根州农业办公室)

译文/刘坤颖(爱猪网记者/编辑)

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