看国外 | 如何通过简单易行的车辆运输模式分析,改善外部生物安全?(上)

看国外 2019-10-16 13:01:00

An easily performed vehicle traffic analysis can dramatically minimize the risk of cross contamination into your swine facility decreasing potential disease challenges.

通过一项易于执行的车辆运输分析,可以极大地降低养猪场受交叉污染的风险,减少潜在的疾病挑战。

Next to the introduction of infected swine (i.e. pig-to-pig transmission), introducing disease via organisms on fomites (i.e. cross contamination) is considered one of the top risks for disease transmission into a farm. Vehicles that transport animals (i.e. live and dead), feed, service people, and supplies often need to travel between swine facilities. 

除了引入感染猪(即猪与猪之间的传播)外,通过污染物上的微生物(即交叉污染)传播疾病被视为疾病传播到猪场的最大风险之一。运输动物(无论死活)、饲料、工作人员和物料的车辆经常需要在养猪场之间往返。

Without question, vehicles are, quite obviously, the largest and sometimes the dirtiest fomites. When there is no decontamination after high risk events like: swine facilities of low health status, dead stock handling locations and slaughter plants, the risk of disease contamination around your swine facility can increase dramatically. 

毫无疑问,车辆显然是最大的污染物,有时甚至是最脏的污染物。当高风险事件发生后,如:健康状况较差的养猪场、死猪处理点和屠宰场没有进行消毒时,养猪场周围的疾病污染风险可能会急剧增加。

Although the industry is making significant investment in better cleaning and disinfection systems for vehicles (e.g. TADD or Thermo Assisted Drying and Decontamination of animal’s transport vehicles), it can be challenging to ensure the disease-free status of all vehicles that enter our farm sites. Analysing and modifying traffic patterns can have a significant impact by minimizing disease transmission risks associated with vehicle movements.

虽然业界正在大力投资改善车辆的清洁及消毒系统(如TADD,热力辅助干燥及净化动物运输车辆),但要确保所有进入猪场的车辆均无疾病,仍是一项挑战。分析和修改运输模式可以将与车辆运输有关的疾病传播风险降到最低,从而产生重大影响。

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Picture 1. Aerial view of the different buildings that integrate the farm.

图1所示-构成猪场的各种建筑的鸟瞰图。

In this article, we will review a real-life example of how one swine production system in the northeastern region of Spain performed a vehicle traffic analysis which guided the implementation of modifications to traffic flow and other biosecurity upgrades that will protect the farm from new disease introductions.

在本文中,我们将回顾一个真实的例子,西班牙东北部地区的一个养猪生产系统如何进行车辆交通分析,指导了交通流量修改和其他生物安全升级的实施,从而避免引入新疾病到猪场。

Understanding this process will help producers and veterinarians to identify and focus on eliminating or managing traffic areas of higher risk for each site that is under the microscope. In this article, we use a practical example of a commercial farrow-to-finish farm system that is located on one premises (Picture 1). Pigs are transferred between the three segregated stages of production (i.e. breed to wean, nursery, and finisher). The site uses both onsite dedicated and external third-party vehicles for animal movements.

了解这一过程将有助于生产者和兽医确定并集中精力消除或管理高风险交通区域。在本文中,我们使用了一个位于一个场所的商业化农场系统的实际例子(图1)。该猪场使用内部专用车辆和外部第三方车辆进行运输。

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Picture 2. Distribution of the production phases by building and original load-ins and load-outs (red pointers)

图2所示—各生产阶段栏舍的分布,以及原有装卸载区(红色框框)

On the first visit of the vehicle traffic biosecurity assessment we analyzed the farm using a satellite image. We focused our conversation on understanding the next following points: 

第一次访问这个车辆交通生物安全评估时,我们使用卫星图像对农场进行了分析。我们谈话的重点集中在理解以下几点上:

Farm layout (i.e. Production stage of each building; feed silo locations; supply entry points; personnel entry/exit points, animal entry/exit points) (Picture 2; You can zoom on the images by clicking on them);

Vehicle flow patterns (i.e. worker/visitor vehicles, third party external and internal farm owned vehicles used for animal movements, feed deliveries, supply vehicles, service vehicles, etc). For the purposes of this article, we will limit our review to animal movement vehicles (Picture 3);

Loading chute design and usage (i.e.: load-in, load-out or both types of movements in the same location).

1. 猪场布局(即每幢建筑物所属生产阶段;饲料竖井位置;物料入口;人员及动物出口及入口(图2);

2. 车辆流动模式(即员工/访客车辆、外部第三方车辆、猪场内部用于动物运输、饲料输送、物料供应、服务的车辆等。就本文而言,我们的讨论仅限于动物运输车辆(图3);

3.装载溜槽的设计和使用(如装载、卸载或两者均在同一地点)。

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Picture 3. Current flow pattern of animal movement vehicles. The internal truck has been represented in blue and the external in fucsia. Area in yellow highlights the cross-contamination risk area.

图3所示—动物运动车辆的流动模式。内部卡车用蓝色表示,外部用紫红色表示。黄色表示交叉污染风险区域。

As shown in Picture 1, we quickly observed that the external and internal animal movement vehicles had overlapping traffic patterns and were also using the same loading chutes. The areas that represent a higher risk for cross contamination between external and internal vehicles are highlighted in yellow. Typically, from the biosecurity perspective, we should consider 2 types of loading chutes. Their usage is based on type of animals being loaded and cleanliness status of vehicles. They can be categorized as follows:

如图1所示,我们很快观察到,内外部车辆的流动路径是重叠的,并且使用了相同的装载槽。外部和内部车辆交叉污染风险较高的区域用黄色标出。通常,从生物安全的角度来看,我们应该考虑两种类型的装载槽。它们的使用是基于装载动物的类型和车辆的清洁状况。可分为以下几类:

Internal flow loading chute: Dedicated to the load-in and the load-out of animals (i.e. farrowing to nursery, nursery to finisher, internally produced replacement gilts to adaptation facilities) or incoming high health replacements (being transferred into the farm) and only contacted by internal farm vehicles that are not used off of the farm.

内部运输装载槽:用于生猪的装载、卸载(即分娩舍到保育舍、保育舍到育肥猪舍、内部生产后备母猪到适应设施)或高健康替代品(转移到农场),并且只能与不曾离开猪场的内部车辆接触。

External flow loading chute: Located in a separate location from the previous chute to avoid cross contamination with internal movements. Dedicated to loading out market and cull animals and only contacted by externally owned transport vehicles.

外部运输加载槽:与之前的溜槽位于不同的位置,避免内部运输引起的交叉污染。专门用于生猪上市和扑杀,只能与外部车辆接触。

(未完待续)

(文/爱猪网记者刘坤颖编译,爱猪网原创,转载请注明出处)


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