看国外 | 美国母猪死亡率上升给我们带来哪些启发?

看国外 2019-03-13 11:20:48

来源:Pig Progress

In a recent comprehensive US research, 20% of sow mortality was attributed to prolapse. While appreciating that result, pig health and welfare expert Dr Monique Pairis-Garcia also feels we are still missing the bigger picture as to why sow mortality occurs.

美国最近的一项综合性研究发现,20%的母猪死亡归因于脱垂。尽管对这一结果表示赞赏,生猪健康和福利专家Dr. Moniqu Pairis Garcia也认为我们仍然缺乏关于母猪死亡原因的大局观。

A year ago, it was difficult to find any article about the swine industry that did not have a primary focus on the heightened concern over increased sow mortality rates on-farm.

一年前,几乎任何一篇关于养猪业的文章都把重点放在对母猪死亡率上升的高度关注上。

In this sow mortality article, which I wrote in October 2017, and followed up by a joint-collaboration with Casey Bradley in 2018, US producers have been at a loss over mortality rates, searching to identify anything to explain the rise in sow deaths. 

在我于2017年10月撰写的这篇母猪死亡率的文章中,以及继2018年与Casey Bradley合作之后,美国生产者一直由于母猪死亡率蒙受损失,并试图找出任何能够解释母猪死亡率上升的原因。

Given the industry wide interest on this topic from both a national and international level, and mortality rates as high as 15%, research dollars have been put forth and multi-institutional collaborations have been formed to provide some answers.

鉴于国内和国际业界对这一主题的广泛兴趣以及高达15%的死亡率,已有研究资金投入其中,并形成了多机构合作以提供一些答案。

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Sow mortality has been an issue in the USA in recent years. Photo: Casey Bradley

近年来,美国一直面临母猪死亡的问题

Sow mortality: Research by Iowa State

母猪死亡率:爱荷华州州立大学研究结果

Recent work conducted by Iowa State University (ISU) has shed some light on the possible role of pelvic organ prolapse on sow loss. In a recent study enrolling over 100 commercial sow farms across the US, representing 400,000 sows, ISU research team collected data on the effect of production systems, geographic location, management practices and genetics on sow mortality.

爱荷华州立大学(ISU)最近的研究对盆腔器官脱垂对母猪损失的可能作用进行了一些说明。在最近一项在美国100多个商业母猪农场(合计40万头母猪)的研究中,ISU研究团队收集了有关生产系统、地理位置、管理实践和基因如何影响母猪死亡率的数据。

Over the course of 6 months, researchers and on-farm staff collected mortality rate on a weekly basis, categorising sow death into 8 standardised categories. The results from this study indicate a 2.7% annualised mortality due to prolapse with individual farms ranging from 0.3-10.3%.

在6个月的过程中,研究人员和农场工作人员每周收集母猪死亡率,将母猪死亡原因分为8个标准化类别。这项研究的结果表明,每年有2.7%的死亡率是由于脱垂造成的,不同猪场由此造成的死亡率在0.3-10.3%之间。

Risk factors associated with prolapse in sows

与母猪脱垂有关危险因素

Researchers found risk factors associated with prolapse, including sows with poor body condition (thin; score 1) more likely to prolapse than sows with better body condition (normal-overweight; score 2-3). In addition, feeding strategy prior to farrowing and water treatment also influenced prolapse. Farms implementing bump-feeding strategies on thin sows prior to farrowing and farms treating water both demonstrated lower prolapse rates.

研究人员发现与脱垂相关的危险因素,如身体状况不佳的母猪(瘦;评分1)比身体状况较好的母猪(正常体重;评分2-3)更容易脱垂。此外,分娩前的喂食策略及饮水装置也影响脱垂。在分娩前对瘦母猪实施通气喂养策略、对饮水进行处理的猪场,都显示出较低的脱垂率。

This information has helped shed light on prolapse incidence and potential risk factors associated with this condition.

这些信息有助于阐明脱垂的发生率和与其相关的潜在危险因素。

Although this is by far the most comprehensive data set we have to date on US sow mortality, I cannot help but to think that we are still missing the big picture. When evaluating the 24-week data collection period, 20% of sow mortality noted was attributed to prolapse. However, 39% of mortality cause was identified as unknown (largest category) and the 2nd largest mortality cause was attributed to lameness(29%). 

虽然这是迄今为止我们所掌握的关于母猪死亡率的最全面的数据集,但我不得不认为我们仍然缺少全局观。在评估24周数据时得出,20%的母猪死亡率是由脱垂引起的。然而,39%的死亡原因是却未知的(最大的类别),第二大的死亡原因是跛足(29%)。

This means that 68% of deaths that occurred over the course of this trial had nothing to do with prolapse. It is without a doubt that prolapse contributes to mortality rate on-farm and there are clear risk factors influencing the incidence of prolapse rate.

这意味着在试验过程中68%的死亡与脱垂无关。毫无疑问,脱垂会造成母猪死亡,并且影响脱垂发生的风险因素也很明显。

Meeting the sow’s nutritional requirements

满足母猪的营养需求

But, is prolapse the most important factor that we should be looking at? Perhaps, Casey Bradley was leading us in the right direction when she focused on the importance of meeting the sow’s nutritional requirements and selecting sows based on appropriate leg structure.

但是,脱垂是我们应该关注的最重要的因素吗?也许,Casey Bradley正带领我们朝着正确的方向前进,她将重点放在满足母猪营养需求和根据合适的腿部结构选择母猪的重要性上。

Although we still do not have a clear answer, I am optimistic that the US swine industry, in collaboration with excellent scientists, producers and allied industry will continue their efforts in identifying science-based solutions to improve sow survivability.

虽然我们仍然没有明确的答案,但我乐观地认为,美国养猪业将与优秀的科学家、生产商和相关产业合作,继续努力确定科学解决方案,以提高母猪的生存能力。

(文/爱猪网记者刘坤颖编译,爱猪网原创,转载请注明出处)

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