看国外 | 加拿大预防非洲猪瘟的做法

看国外 2019-04-08 10:28:22

Pig industry leaders and farmers alike throughout North and South America are extremely concerned that African Swine Fever will somehow infect pigs in their countries. What does Canada do to keep the virus out?

整个美国养猪业上下都非常担心非洲猪瘟会以某种方式感染他们的猪。邻国加拿大采取了哪些措施来预防非瘟病毒呢?

First of all, it helps that nowhere in this part of the world has the virus been found in wild boar populations, but passive surveillance continues in these populations for ASF and various other diseases.

首先,加拿大的野猪群中尚未发现非瘟病毒,这是有利的;但是,对整个猪群的非瘟及其它各种疾病的被动监测仍在继续。

For Canada, the biggest threat is smuggled meat, said Dr Egan Brockhoff, a swine veterinarian and partner at Prairie Swine Health Services in Red Deer, AB, Canada, and veterinary counselor for the Canadian Pork Council. “We are focusing our efforts on all the possible ways of virus introduction and reducing risk along those pathways,” he explained.

对加拿大而言,最大的威胁是走私肉类,Dr Egan Brockhoff如此说道,他是一名猪兽医,也是加拿大马鹿草原猪健康服务中心的合作伙伴,同时也是加拿大猪肉委员会的兽医顾问。他解释说:“我们正集中精力研究所有可能的病毒传播途径,并在这些途径上降低风险。”

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Keeping eyes wide open is essential to prevent ASF from entering Canada. Illustration: Shutterstock

睁大眼睛、做好监测是防止非瘟进入加拿大的关键

Travellers bringing in illegal meat

游客携带非法肉类入境

“Travellers bringing in illegal meat is an established high-risk pathway. That’s how Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) was introduced into Canada after the Second World War. Some sausage was brought to a farm and some of the meat was thrown out and got fed to the pigs.”

旅客携带非法肉类产品入境是一个公认的高风险途径,这也是口蹄疫在二战后传入加拿大的途径,一些香肠被带到猪场,有些被扔去喂猪。

Contaminated meat could be shipped into Canada by mail, in shipping containers or by airline travellers themselves (on their persons or in luggage). Dr Brockhoff said, “We know that Japan, Korea, Taiwan and Australia have all had ASF-contaminated meat products entering their borders, and also in the case of Australia, FMD. The Canadian pork industry has asked that many more sniffer dogs be put into service at Canadian airports. They are a highly-effective tool.”

受污染的肉类可以通过邮寄、海运集装箱或航空旅客本人(随身携带或在行李中)运往加拿大。Dr Brockhoff说:“我们知道日本、韩国、台湾和澳大利亚都有受到非瘟污染的肉制品进入他们的国境,澳大利亚也有口蹄疫。加拿大猪肉行业要求在加拿大机场投入更多的嗅探犬。它们是一种高效的工具。”

More sniffer dogs wanted to avoid ASF from entering

预防非瘟需要更多嗅探犬投入工作

Since the Canadian pork sector sent letters of request for more sniffer dogs to the federal government about a month ago, Dr Brockhoff said engagement from the Minister of Agriculture, Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) and Canadian Border Service Agency has been ‘very good’.

Dr. Brockhoff说,自从大约一个月前加拿大猪肉部门向联邦政府发出请求,要求增加嗅探犬的数量以来,农业部长、加拿大食品检验署(CFIA)和加拿大边境服务局的参与度很高。

It’s impossible for Dr Brockhoff or anyone to say whether more dogs will be put into place fast enough to help prevent a possible ASF breach – or whether the existing dog pool might find a smuggled meat product that turns out to be ASF-positive before then. In the big picture, he said, “I think we have to recognise that we’ve had contaminated meat products coming to our borders for years. We have to get ahead of it. We are keen to see more dogs come into play.”

Dr. Brochoff或任何人都无法保证说,更多的嗅探犬是否能够足够快地到位以防止可能的非瘟入侵,或者说现有的嗅探犬可以在非瘟入侵之前找到一块非瘟阳性的走私肉类产品。但从大局出发,他说,“我们必须承认,多年来一直有受污染的肉类进入我们的国境,我们必须领先一步。我们渴望看到更多嗅探犬参与进来”。

Other serious potential entry pathways for ASF into Canada are contaminated packaging and feed ingredients. Dr Brockhoff noted that soy-based ingredients seem to be the best at keeping the virus alive, and also that the Canadian swine industry imports a great deal (or even all) of certain vitamins, minerals and amino acids that are put into feed.

非瘟传入加拿大的其它严重潜在途径还有受污染的包装和饲料成分。Dr. Brockhoff指出,大豆成分似乎最有助于病毒存活,而且加拿大养猪业进口了大量(甚至是全部)饲料中的特定维生素、矿物质和氨基酸。

Canada’s small pig operations

加拿大的小型养猪场

Canada’s backyard and small pig operations may pose a risk for virus spread in that there are likely some, said Dr Brockhoff, that are not part of the national pig traceability scheme, PigTrace. All producer locations across the country that transport even one pig from one location to another must be registered with PigTrace.

Dr. Brockhoff说,加拿大的后院及小型养猪场也是一个风险,因为其中有一些猪场并不在国家养猪可追溯计划Pig Trace的范围内。在加拿大,所有生产商都必须在Pig Trace上注册,哪怕只是把一头猪从某处运送到另一处。

“We are reaching out to make sure backyard and small farmers who haven’t been exposed to information on biosecurity protocols understand them and apply them,” said Dr Brockhoff.

他还提到,“我们正在努力,确保那些没有接触过生物安全协议的后院和小猪场能够理解并应用这些协议”。

Biosecurity as powerful tool

生物安全是一个强有力的措施

“Biosecurity is the most powerful tool we have for keeping viruses that may have entered the country away from pigs, or containing the virus on a given farm. Our commercial producers are very aware of these protocols, which are part of the Quality Assurance Program. We’re reaching out to small producers through farm magazines, social media and producer meetings.”

“生物安全是我们拥有的最强大的工具,可以预防非瘟病毒传入加拿大,或者在特定猪场里控制这种病毒。我们的商业生产者非常了解这些协议,这也是质量保证计划的一部分。我们正在通过猪场杂志、社交媒体以及生产者会议,让小型生产商接触到这些信息”。

As in other countries, Canada is putting huge effort into keeping ASF out, said Dr Brockhoff, from both the pig sector and the government angle. It remains to be seen whether these efforts will prove fruitful. Canada will host an international gathering called the ASF Forum at the end of April in Ottawa, which will have a focus, says Dr Brockhoff, on prevention of entry.

Dr. Brockhoff说,和其它国家一样,加拿大正在尽全力阻止非瘟传入。这些是否能够取得成果还有待观察。加拿大将于四月底在渥太华举办一场名为非瘟论坛的国际性会议,会议的重点是防止非瘟入侵。


来源:Pig Progress

作者:Treena Hein

(文/爱猪网记者刘坤颖编译,爱猪网原创,转载请注明出处)


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