看国外 | 肯尼亚兽医分享:猪场投产前,务必咨询专业人士

看国外 2019-09-06 10:59:36

A Kenya-based swine vet provides his thoughts on why incorrect information shared between friends may stop many pig farmers from reaching profitability.

一位肯尼亚猪兽医提到,朋友间共享的错误信息会致使许多养殖户无法实现盈利的原因。

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 Agriculture students at the Eldoret Agricultural Training Institute check on pigs they keep in the institution's farm. Pig populations in the country have been threatened by diseases, especially the African swine fever. PHOTO | JARED NYATAYA | NMG 

埃尔多雷特农业培训学院(Eldoret Agricultural Training Institute)的学生正在检查他们饲养在该机构农场的猪。该国的猪群一直受到疾病的威胁,尤其是非洲猪瘟。图:JARED NYATAYA | NMG 

Dr Joseph Mugachia recently wrote an article for the Daily Nation, describing the conversations he had had with two novice pig farmers at events in Kajiado and Murang'a. He explains that in both cases, the novice farmers were not succeeding in reaching profitability and wondered what the problem may be, so they had both consulted friends and colleagues in the industry who appeared to be doing well.

Joseph Mugachia博士最近为《国家日报》写了一篇文章,描述了他在Kajiado和Murang'a的活动中与两个新手养猪户的对话。他解释说,在这两种情况下,两位养殖户都没有成功实现盈利,他们想知道可能存在什么问题,所以咨询了行业中表现不错的朋友和同事。

Starting with sows or weaners?

选择母猪还是断奶猪?

One farmer had begun his pig farming venture by buying pregnant gilts and rearing the piglets to baconer weight in eight months - never making any profit. He was advised to buy only the weaners and rear them to baconer weight in five months as this would mean the cost of feeding the sow and the suckling piglets would have fallen on the farmer selling the weaners.

其中一名养殖户的养猪生涯从养怀孕母猪开始,然后在8个月时间里把仔猪养到肥猪体重,但没有任何盈利。有人建议他只购买断奶猪,并在5个月时间里养到肥猪体重,因为这意味着饲喂母猪及乳猪的成本会落在出售断奶猪的养殖户身上。

This seems like a logical argument for the inexperienced farmer but, according to Dr Mugachia, it is important to consider that suckling piglets eat very little food and that the seller would have covered his feeding costs in the price of the weaners. This meant that when the farmer bought the weaner piglets, he surrendered most of his anticipated profit to the seller. Additionally, weaner piglets can experience relocation stress when moved to a new farm which can ultimately result in them taking longer to reach market weight, further reducing the likelihood of reaching profitability, he said.

对于缺乏经验的新手养殖户来说,这似乎是一个合乎逻辑的论点,但是,Mugachia博士说,还要考虑到哺乳期仔猪食量非常小,而卖家会把饲养成本加到断奶猪的售价上。这就意味着,养殖户买进断奶仔猪时,其实把大部分预期利润让给了卖家。再者,断奶仔猪转入新环境时,容易产生应激,需要更长时间才能达到出栏体重,从而进一步降低了盈利的可能性。

Getting the nutrition right

摄取足够营养

The second conversation Dr Mugachia described was with a farmer who had begun his pig business six months prior. He was advised by a friend to buy feed ingredients from the market and mill his own feed to reduce costs but since then his 15 weaner piglets had all died after developing key clinical signs of malnutrition and low-grade bacterial infection: weakness; weight loss; long, dirty hair; and chronic diarrhoea. Dr Mugachia explained that commercial feeds are tailored exactly to the stage of life that a pig is in: weaner piglets are fed sow and weaner feed; grower piglets receive grower feed; and finishers are fed finisher meal. The lack of adequate nutrition likely led to low immunity which ultimately resulted in the piglets succumbing to disease.

Mugachia博士提及的第二段对话是和一位六个月前刚开始养猪的养殖户。该养殖户的朋友建议他去市场购买饲料原料,回来自己研磨,以降低成本。但从那之后,他养的15头断奶仔猪都出现营养不良和低级别细菌感染的临床症状:虚弱、体重减轻、毛发又长又脏以及腹泻,之后全部死亡。Mugachia博士解释道,商业饲料是根据生猪不同生长阶段量身定做的:断奶仔猪饲喂的是母猪及断奶粮;生长猪应食用生长猪粮;育肥猪则是育肥猪粮。

Always seek professional advice

寻求专业意见

In these cases, seeking professional advice would have prevented the painful outcome but it's never too late to start talking to the right people and making improvements on farm. Dr Mugachia adds that pig farming requires very high standards of record-keeping and management to accurately track health and expenses, and to ensure there is no interruption in your pigs' growth curve.

在这些情况下,寻求专业建议本可以避免这些惨痛的后果,但现在开始与正确的人交谈,并在猪场做出改进,永远不会太迟。Mugachia博士补充说,养猪业需要高标准的记录和管理,以准确跟踪猪只健康和支出,并确保生猪的生长曲线不会中断。

原文链接

https://thepigsite.com/news/2019/09/before-investing-in-pigs-seek-professional-guidance-says-kenyan-vet

(文/爱猪网记者刘坤颖编译,爱猪网原创,转载请注明出处)


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