看国外 | 海藻源β-葡聚糖可替代抗生素应对仔猪大肠杆菌感染

看国外 2019-03-11 13:30:17

来源:All About Feed

In the ideal situation when a pig is challenged with an E. coli infection, the infection is stopped by having a strong immune response, followed by a prompt reversion to normal growth. The use of algae-derived β-glucan can help do this.

在理想的情况下,当一头猪受到大肠杆菌感染时,如果有强大的免疫反应,可以阻止感染,然后迅速恢复正常生长。使用藻类衍生的β-葡聚糖有助于实现这一点。

β-glucans are a heterogeneous group of polysaccharides naturally present in cereal grains, fungi, seaweed, and algae and are known to have anti-tumor and immunomodulatory effects in vitro, although not all types of β-glucans exhibit similar immune-modulatory effects.

β-葡聚糖一种是天然存在于谷粒、真菌、海藻和藻类中的异质多糖组,已知其在体外具有抗肿瘤和免疫调节作用,但并非所有类型的β-葡聚糖都具有类似的免疫调节作用。

Euglena gracilis algae

细水藻

Currently, the majority of commercially available β-glucans are derived from yeast, whereas limited research have been conducted on algae-derived β-glucan in pigs. The β-glucans extracted from algae Euglena gracilis are linked by (1,3)-glycosidic bonds and are categorised as paramylon.

目前,市面上大多数的β-葡聚糖都是从酵母中提取的,而对猪体内藻类来源的β-葡聚糖的研究却很少。从海藻中提取的β-葡聚糖通过(1,3)-糖苷键连接,归类为副羟基。

Earlier research showed that β-glucan from algae Euglena gracilis strongly stimulated porcine leukocytes in vitro. Therefore, researchers wanted to know if supplementation of algae Euglena gracilis-derived β-glucan could modulate immune responses and gut integrity, and with this enhance disease resistance and health of weaned pigs. 

早期的研究表明,海藻中的β-葡聚糖在体外对猪白细胞有强烈的刺激作用。因此,研究人员想知道补充海藻源的β-葡聚糖是否能够调节免疫反应和肠道完整性,从而增强断奶猪的抗病性和健康。

The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of algae-derived β-glucan on diarrhoea, gut permeability and immune responses of weaned pigs experimentally infected with F18 E. coli. The study was published in the Journal of Animal Feed Science and Technology.

本研究旨在探讨海藻源β-葡聚糖对实验感染F18大肠杆菌断奶仔猪腹泻、肠道通透性及免疫反应的影响。这项研究发表在《动物饲料科学与技术杂志》上。

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Photo: Henk Riswick

3 dietary treatments

3种喂食方案

A total of 36 weaning pigs (21 days old) with an equal number of gilts and barrows and an average initial body weight (BW) of 7.69 ± 0.77 kg were selected from the Swine Teaching and Research Center of the University of California, Davis. The sows and piglets used in this experiment did not receive E. coli vaccines, antibiotic injections, or antibiotics in creep feed. After weaning, all pigs were randomly assigned to one of 3 dietary treatments:

从加利福尼亚大学戴维斯分校的猪教学和研究中心选取36头断奶猪(21天日龄),后备母猪和阉猪的数量相等,平均初始体重(BW)为7.69±0.77 kg。本实验所用母猪和仔猪未接种大肠杆菌疫苗、抗生素注射剂或蠕变饲料中的抗生素。断奶后,随机给所有的猪分配以下3种喂食方案:

1) a complex nursery basal diet as the control diet

1)以复合保育基础饮食为对照组

2) a complex nursery basal diet including 54 mg/kg (low dose) of algae-derived β-glucan

2)复合保育基础饮食,添加54 mg/kg(低剂量)藻类源β-葡聚糖

3) a complex nursery basal diet including 108 mg/kg (high dose) of algae-derived β-glucan

3)复合苗圃基础饮食,添加108 mg/kg(高剂量)藻类源β-葡聚糖

All diets met the current estimates for nutrient requirements for nursery pigs (NRC, 2012). Spray-dried plasma, antibiotics, and zinc oxide were not included in the diets.

所有的饮食方案都符合目前对育肥猪营养需求的估算值(NRC,2012年)。日粮中不含喷雾干燥血浆、抗生素和氧化锌。

The experimental diets were fed to pigs as a mash form throughout the experiment. The β-glucan used in this experiment was ProGlucan™ (dried algae Euglena gracilis) and provided by Algal Scientific, USA (Plymouth, MI), part of Kemin. The product contained around 50% β-glucan, in which 95% was β-1,3-glucan. After 5 days adaptation, all pigs were orally inoculated with 3 mL of F18 E. coli for 3 consecutive days from d 0 post-inoculation (PI).

在整个实验过程中,实验性饲料以糊状的形式喂给猪。本实验中使用的β-葡聚糖是ProgLucan™(干海藻Eugena gracilis),由美国Algal Scientific(普利茅斯,密歇根州)提供,该公司隶属于建明。该产品含有约50%的β-葡聚糖,其中95%为β-1,3-葡聚糖。经过5天适应期之后,连续3天(自接种当天算起)给所有猪口服接种3 ml F18大肠杆菌。

Acceleration of infection recovery

加速感染恢复

Results of this experiment revealed that inclusion of high dose β-glucan reduced frequency of diarrhoea (29.01% vs. 17.28%) for the entire experimental period. The feed supplementation of approximately 108 mg/kg of algae-derived β-glucan alleviated diarrhoea of F18 E. coli infected pigs by enhancing gut integrity. 

该试验结果表明,在整个试验期间,添加高剂量的β-葡聚糖可以降低腹泻发生率(29.01% vs 17.28)。由于增强了肠道完整性,日粮中补充添加108 mg/kg海藻源β-葡聚糖减轻了F18大肠杆菌感染猪的腹泻症状。

Feeding algae-derived β-glucan also boosted host immune response against E. coli infection. The β-glucan product stimulated T cell activation and reduced inflammation and, therefore, may accelerate the recovery of pigs from E. coli infection. The use of algae-derived β-glucan will promote weaned pig health and increase profitability of pork producers as the use of antibiotics in feed is restricted.

同时,添加海藻源β-葡聚糖也能增强宿主对大肠杆菌的免疫应答。β-葡聚糖产品刺激T细胞活化,减少炎症,因此可能加速猪从大肠杆菌感染中恢复。当前饲料抗生素的使用受限,海藻源β-葡聚糖的使用将促进断奶仔猪的健康状况,并提高猪肉生产商的盈利能力。

(文/爱猪网记者刘坤颖编译,爱猪网原创,转载请注明出处)

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