看国外 | 冷空气来袭!教你巧设通风助猪群安稳过冬

看国外 2018-12-07 09:37:53

来源:The Pig Site

Winter is here. Are your barns ready?

冬天来了,你的猪场准备好了吗?

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The temperatures are dropping and the first snow has already accumulated in parts of the world. It can be challenging to keep pigs comfortable under winter conditions. Maintaining optimal barn conditions is important for animal wellbeing, farm productivity and people working in the barn. Good ventilation will remove humidity, dust, gases and it will provide fresh air. 

PIC has observed lower respiratory challenges, lower mortality and higher feed intake in barns with optimal conditions versus barns with suboptimal conditions. The right ventilation strategy can make the difference. This article will review tips and tricks around ventilation management that PIC has developed over time in collaboration with many of its customers.

各地气温逐步下降,全球部分地区已经开始下起了初雪。如何让猪群安稳过冬是一项具有挑战性的任务。保持最佳的猪场环境对于动物健康、农场生产力及工作人员来说都非常重要。而保持良好通风可以消除湿气、灰尘、有害气体,并提供新鲜空气。最好的猪场与稍差的相比,猪群患呼吸道疾病的几率更小、死亡率更低,而采食量也更高,这其中,正确的通风措施至关重要

本文将回顾一系列关于通风管理的提示和技巧。

In the winter, there is a fine line between providing good air quality and comfort for the pigs. Too much cold air intake could lower pig activity resulting in decreased feed intake. In addition, too much cold air also leads to higher energy costs.

On the other hand, insufficient ventilation can lead to damp barns which can cause respiratory challenges and increased mortality. Dampness will also lead to degradation of the ceiling, roof and equipment.

在冬季,为猪提供良好的空气质量和保持猪群舒适之间进一线之隔。过多的冷空气摄入会降低猪的活动量,导致采食量减少。此外,还会消耗更多能量。另一方面,通风不足会使猪场环境潮湿,从而引发呼吸道疾病,进而造成死亡率上升。潮湿的空气还会使天花板、屋顶和设备退化。

The core premise of good ventilation management is that air exchange and temperature should be managed separately. Good ventilation practices are to maintain a minimum ventilation rate while optimising the air flow in the farms to reduce energy losses. Specifically two practices have to be combined:

良好通风管理的核心前提是把换气和温度控制分开管理。良好的通风措施是保持最低通风率,同时优化农场的空气流量,以减少能量流失。具体而言,两种做法应结合起来:

· Minimum ventilation – the ventilation system is operating at the minimum setting when the room temperature falls below the set point. Table 2 shows the PIC minimum ventilation recommendation by pig. This minimum ventilation setting ensures sufficient air exchange.

1. 最低通风率 - 当室温低于设定值时,通风系统以最小设置值运行。表1为PIC的最低通风率建议。该设置可确保充分换气。

· Role of inlets – the correct settings for inlets help to achieve adequate air velocity across the ceiling of the barn and mixes cold air with warm air in the room before reaching pig level. Since cold air is typically denser than warm air it will start to fall faster than warm air. The goal of minimum ventilation is to mix cold outside air with warmer barn air. Proper mixing of air can be achieved through the correct air velocity . 

This approach avoids producing a draft on top of the pigs and achieves an optimal air exchange. In addition it is important to match the inlet opening to the number of fans. Inlet openings that are too tight could result in freezing inlets and poor air mixing – which can result in chilled pigs, wet floors and increased energy costs.

With these concepts in mind, we would like to share some practical ventilation tips that help you prepare your barns for the winter:

2. 入风口的作用 – 正确安装入风口有利于空气充分流动,使上层冷空气在被猪群吸入之前,先与室内的暖空气中和。冷空气通常比暖空气更密集,因此会比热空气下沉得更快。设置最低通风率是为了将外部的冷空气与猪场内较暖的空气混合。合适的空气流速可以让空气更好地混合。此外,入风口的开口与风扇数量相匹配也很重要。开口过紧可能导致入风口结冰、空气混合不良 - 这可能导致猪群受冻、地板受潮,消耗更多能量。

考虑到这些因素,我们希望分享一些实用的通风技巧,帮助您为冬天的到来做好准备:

· Ensure that all fans are clean following fall pumping season and ensure pump out covers are in place and sealed. Dirty louvers and fan blades may decrease fan efficiency by as much as 30 percent. Consider covering wall fans that will not be used during the fall and winter with plastic wrap to provide insulation and avoid stray cold air entering the barn;

3. 所有风扇在抽水季节后都应清洗干净,并确保泵盖就位并密封。脏兮兮的百叶窗和风扇叶片可能会使风扇效率降低30%。秋冬季不用到的壁扇可以考虑用塑料膜封起来,以达到隔热效果,避免杂散的冷空气进入猪场;

· Clean temperature and brooder probes and ensure accuracy of reading. Place probes in spots that give accurate temperature reading and avoid placing them directly in front of inlets;

4. 清洁温度计探针,确保读数准确。将探头放在能够准确读取温度的位置,避免将探头直接放在入风口前;

· Consider using bubble wrap in curtains to provide insulation to the room. Be sure to leave a gap of 10-12 inches at the top of the curtain to provide room for air to enter the building;

5. 可考虑在窗帘中使用气泡包装来提供隔热效果。但务必在窗帘顶部留出10-12英寸的间隙,以便让空气进入室内;

· Review minimum ventilation variable fan speeds and inlet openings to achieve a minimum of 600-800 FPM and less than 65 percent relative humidity;

6. 检查最小通风量、风扇速度和入风口开口,以达到最低600-800 FPM和低于65%的相对湿度;

· Variable speed fans should not run below 50 percent on the controller, otherwise these fans could be in jeopardy of needing frequent maintenance or freezing up;

7.变速风扇不应以低于控制器50%的速度运转,否则这些风扇可能需要频繁维护或面临被冻结的危害;

· Adjust temperature bandwidth on the controllers, stage-to-stage, in winter time to approximately 1.5–2.0°F;

8.调节控制器的温度范围,冬季可大约设置在1.5-2.0°F;

· Avoid heater overshoot. PIC recommends 2°F heater off-set below the set point. (For example, if the set point is 75°F, the heaters turn on at 72°F and off at 73°F);

9. 避免加热器超调。PIC建议在设定点以下2°F关闭加热器。 (例如,如果设定点为75°F,则加热器在72°F开启,在73°F关闭);

· When using brooders and/or mats, comfort zones should be at 95°F directly beneath the brooder for 14-21 days, dependent on pig size and health. Additionally, pigs require 0.4 square feet of mat space to help maximise pig comfort and eliminate drafting from below the slats or plastic flooring;

10. 使用育雏器/或垫子时,舒适区应在育雏器正下方95°F处,持续14-21天,取决于猪的大小和健康状况。此外,猪需要0.4平方英尺的垫子空间,最大限度地提高猪的舒适度,并消除板条或塑料地板下面的空气流动;

· Consider adding fan cones to improve a fan’s CFM output by 10-20%.

11. 考虑添加风扇锥以将风扇的气流量提高10-20%。

While winter continues to be a challenge, it is also an opportunity for continuous improvement. By following the ventilation best practices, pig comfort can be increased over the long winter months. Striking a balance between ventilation and temperature will provide the best possible way to optimise barn conditions to help your farm reach its full potential. 

虽然冬季仍然是一个挑战,但这也是一个持续改进的机会。通过遵循通风最佳实践,可以在漫长的冬季提高猪的舒适度。在通风和温度之间取得平衡将为优化猪场条件提供最佳方式,从而充分发挥其潜力。

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Table 1- Minimum Ventilation Recommendations

表1-最低通风建议

(文/爱猪网记者刘坤颖编译,爱猪网原创请勿转载)


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